Sayyiduna Uqba ibn Amir (möge Allah mit ihm zufrieden sein) überliefert: Ich hörte den Gesandten Allahs (Möge Allah ihm Frieden geben und ihn segnen) sagen: „Euer Herr, der Erhabene, ist zufrieden mit einem Ziegenhirten, der auf dem Gipfel eines Berges den Gebetsruf macht (den Adhan verrichtet) und zum Gebet einlädt. Allah, der Erhabene sagt: Seht euch diesen Meinen Diener an, er macht den Adhan und Iqama für das Gebet aus Angst vor Mir. Ich habe Meinem Sklaven vergeben und ihn ins Paradies eintreten lassen.“ (Sunan Abi Dawud no: 1196, Sunan Nasa’i no: 665 and Musnad Ahmad 4/157)
In derhanefitischen rechtschule gilt der Adaan als Sunna und als empfpholen, ist aber nicht verpflichtend für denjenigen, der allein* betet.
Finger in den Ohrlöchern
Zum Ausprobieren: Finger in die Ohren stecken und dann laut Adhan machen; die Stimme hat dann mehr Druck und kann lauter werden und alle akustischen Ablenkungen von Außen sind derart abgeschnitten.
"I saw Bilal calling the Adhan, and turning, and his (face) was following here and there, and his (index) fingers were in his ears" Musnad Ahmad
Bilal said, "I put my index fingers into my ears and made the adhan. (Related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Hibban.) Says at-Tirmidhi, "The scholars prefer the callers to put their index fingers into their ears while making the adhan."
Al-Bukhaari entitled a chapter in his Saheeh: “… It was reported that Bilal put his fingers in his ears whereas Ibn ‘Umar did not do so…”
The first person to only put one finger in one ear was Ibn Al-Asamm, as reported by Ibn Abi Shaybah in Al-Musannaf. The author of Misbah Az-Zujajah said: "The Messenger of Allaah , ordered Bilaal to put his fingers in his ears, explaining that doing this would help him raise his voice more." However, the Isnad (chain of narrators) of this tradition is weak as stated by the author.
Therefore, what is authentically proven is that Bilal did so in the presence of the Messenger of Allaah , without having been ordered to, as is understood from the Hadeeth narrated by Wahb ibn ‘Abdullaah that we mentioned above. Moreover, such an action is recommended and entails reward for the one who does it as a means to draw near to Allaah Almighty, but the one who leaves it is not sinful.
THE CALL FOR PRAYER (AZAAN)
Yahya narrated it on the authority of his uncle that he had been sitting in the company of Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan (may Allah be well pleased with them) when the “Muazzin” called (Muslims) to Prayer. Muawiya said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) saying The “Muazzin”s will have the longest necks on the Day of Resurrection. (They will be the more deserving of Allah's mercy and reward) (Sunan Abu Dawood)
The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Whoever proclaims the “Azaan” for 7 years, for the sake of reward, Allah keeps him secure from the fire of hell.” (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah)
The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “The one who proclaims the “Azaan” only seeking reward, is like the blood stained martyr - and when he dies, his body will be safe from insects.” (Bahaare Shariat from Tibrani)
It is an Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah) to proclaim the “Azaan” for offering Obligatory Prayers in the mosque. This command is like an Essential (Wajib) in the sense that if the “Azaan” is not proclaimed, the entire community residing there will be offenders. It is undesirable (Makrooh) to proclaim the “Azaan” without ablution. The “Azaan” for each Obligatory Prayer can be proclaimed after the time starts for each respective Prayer. An “Azaan” proclaimed prior to its time must be repeated in its due time.
Islamic Law (Shariah) has some specific words for the “Azaan” (the Call for Prayer), which are as follows:-
Ash-hadu al-laa ilaaha illAllah: Ash-hadu al-laa ilaaha illAllah
Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah:Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah
Hayya alas-Salaah: Hayya alas-Salaah
Hayya alal-Falaah: Hayya alal-Falaah
Allahu Akbar: Allahu Akbar
Laa ilaaha illAllah
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest;
I bear witness that there is no God except Allah, I bear witness that there is no God except Allah:
I bear witness that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah, I bear witness that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah:
Come towards Prayer, come towards Prayer; Come towards Success, come towards Success;
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; There is no God except Allah!
While saying “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah” in the “Azaan” or in the “Iqamah”, one must face right and left respectively. Upon hearing the “Azaan”, it is commanded to reply to it - i.e. to repeat the words which the Caller (Muazzin) is saying, except for the words “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah”, for which one must say "Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa Billah" (There is neither power nor strength, except with Allah).
In the “Azaan” for the Dawn Prayer, the Caller must say the following words twice after “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah” - "AsSalaatu Khairum-minun-Naum" (Prayer is better than sleep). The response to these words is "Sadaqta wa bararta, wa bilHaqqi Nataqta" (You have confirmed the truth and you did well - and you have spoken a fact.)
While the “Azaan” is being said, one must not indulge in any talk, recite Qur'an etc., nor indulge in other activities. Listen to the “Azaan” attentively and reply to it. The same applies to the “Iqamah”. For the one who stays engroßed in talk while the “Azaan” is being proclaimed, there is a danger of him dying an evil death. (We seek Allah's refuge)
When the Caller proclaims "Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah", one must respond by sending peace and blessings upon the Holy Prophet - "SallAllahu alayka yaa Rasool Allah" (Allah's blessings be upon you, O the Messenger of Allah). It is recommended (Mustahab) to kiss one's thumbnails and touch them on one's eyes while saying, "Qurratu ayni beka yaa Rasool-Allah - Allahumma Matteyni Bis-Samye wal-Basar" (The coolness of my eyes is due to you, O the Messenger of Allah! O Allah, grant me the usage of the ears and the eyes). The one who does this will be taken by the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to Paradise.
The words proclaimed to announce the beginning of the congregational Prayers (with Jamaat), are called “Iqamah”. All words are the same as in the “Azaan”, except that after the second "Hayya alal-Falaah", the following words are said twice - "Qad Qamatißalaah" (The Prayer has been established). In response to this, one should say "AqamahAllah wa adamaha maa damatiSamawate walArd" (May Allah keep it established, and grant it permanence as long as the skies and the earth remain.)
It is undesirable (Makrooh) for a person who comes in at the time of “Iqamah” to remain standing and wait - he should sit down and stand up only when the Proclaimer (Mukabbir) has announced "Hayya alal-Falaah". Likewise those who are already present in the mosque must stand up at this moment. The same applies to the “Imaam”.
If several “Azaans” are heard, the listener must reply to the first one, and it is better if he replies to all. The “Azaan” for the Sermon (Khutbah) must not be replied to by those who pray behind the “Imaam” in congregation. (The follower is called Muqtadi).
After the “Azaan”, one must send blessings upon the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and then supplicate as follows:
(O Allah, the Lord of this perfect call and of the Prayer to be established! Grant our leader Hazrat Mohammed, the highest point in Paradise, and Excellence, and the highest rank, and install him on the praiseworthy position which You have promised him - and grant us his intercession on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed You do not go against Your promise.)